Resources and Tools for Elementary Math Specialists and Teachers
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Norms and Mathematical Proficiency

In this 8-page article (PDF) Kastberg and Frye explain how sociomathematical norms can improve students' mathematical proficiency. The article focuses on a 6th grade class working through a ratio comparison problem. In this classroom students had been encouraged to question and challenge their own solutions as well as peer's solutions, leading to deeper mathematical understanding through valuing the differences in problem solving and reasoning.
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Contributed by: Signe E. Kastberg - Author, R. Scott Frye - Author, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics - Publisher
This resource is included in the following PD Collection(s):
CCSS Practice Standard 3This collection assists teachers as they integrate Mathematical Practice Standard 3 into their classroom routines. Encouraging productive student conversations about mathematics builds the foundation that supports this practice. These resources will help teachers learn methods for creating an environment where constructing arguments and critiquing the reasoning of peers is a common occurrence. Additional resources may be found in a companion classroom collection.
Math TopicNumber Sense, Mathematical Practices, Mathematical Processes
Grade Level3, 4, 5, 6+
Resource TypeReference Materials, Article

  • Additional Information
    • AudienceEducator
    • LanguageEnglish (USA)
    • Education Topic
    • Interdisciplinary Connection
    • Professional DevelopmentYes
    • ContributorSigne E. Kastberg - Author, R. Scott Frye - Author, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics - Publisher
    • Publication Date2013-08
    • RightsCopyright (c) 2013 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
      http://www.nctm.org/about/content.aspx?id=8854
    • AccessFree access
  • Standards
    • Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

      Select a standards document: