Number and Operations—Fractions

Develop understanding of fractions as numbers.

3. Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size.

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In this virtual manipulative, students are given two fractions with unlike denominators, and shapes divided into equal pieces that represent those fractions. Students find equivalent fractions with a common denominator by re-dividing those shapes. They then locate the equivalent fractions on a number line, and re-divide the number line to find fractions between the two they located. Instructions for using the applet and teaching ideas for parents/teachers are available through the links at the top of the page. | Activity Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 | |

Students use this virtual manipulative to visualize and name equivalent fractions. The applet presents a shape divided into equal parts, with some parts shaded. Students change the number of divisions of the shape to visualize equivalent fractions, name the fractions, and check their answers. Instructions for using the applet and teaching ideas for parents/teachers are available through the links at the top of the page. | Activity Grade Level: 3, 4 | |

This set of interactive activities for students introduces early fractions concepts. Students name the parts needed to divide a pizza, fill in a fraction wall with fraction bars, name a shaded fraction, arrange fractions on a number line, and subtract fractions from a whole using different denominators. The main page links to support materials for teachers: practice problems and exposition material. | Activity, Lecture/Presentation, Problem Set Grade Level: 2, 3, 4, 5 | |

In this interactive game students practice their knowledge of equivalent fractions. Students are given four fractions and are asked to select the one that isn't equivalent to the other three. There are four levels of difficulty, each with ten examples. Players are shown the correct answer for each missed item. | Activity, Game, Interactive Media Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 | |

In this five lesson unit with overview from Illuminations, student activities explore relationships among fractions through work with the length model. Students construct fraction strips and use fraction bars throughout the unit to make sense of basic fraction concepts, to compare fractions and order fractions and to work with equivalency in fractions. Specific learning objectives, a material list, an instructional plan, questions for the students, assessment options, extensions, and teacher reflections are given for each lesson. | Lesson Plans Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 | |

This unit from Illuminations consists of five lessons designed to help students understand fractions when they are represented as a part of a region. Learners investigate relationships between parts and wholes, the relative value of the fraction based on the pattern block shape and equivalency while working with physical and/or virtual pattern blocks. Instructional plan, questions for the students, assessment options, extensions, and teacher reflections are given for each lesson. | Activity, Interactive Media, Lesson Plans Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 | |

This six-minute video demonstrates two methods for reducing fractions to lowest terms. The first method involves listing all the factors of the numerator and denominator and dividing them by their greatest common factor. The second method involves dividing out (canceling) the common prime factors from the prime factorizations of the terms obtained via their factor trees. | Lesson Plans, Video Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 | |

In this lesson students learn the meaning of fractions as parts of a whole and parts of a set. They learn key vocabulary and how to compare and order fractions. The lesson links to an interactive game, Fraction Fun (catalogued separately), which gives practice in naming fractions, and to downloadable follow-up exercises (Word and pdf). | Activity, Interactive Media, Lesson Plans Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 | |

In this lesson plan from Illuminations, students use relationship rods to explore fraction relationships. Relationship rods range in length from one to ten centimeters, and each rod is a different color. An activity sheet with solutions, questions for students, assessment options, and suggested extension activities are included. The lesson plan is part of a five lesson plan unit, Fun with Fractions, which is cataloged separately. | Activity, Lesson Plans Grade Level: 3, 4, 5, 6+ Resource is part of a PD collection | |

This interactive Flash applet develops children's fraction concepts (partitioning, equivalence, and unit) by building on their informal understanding of rational numbers in the familiar context of sharing cookies fairly among friends. Users decide on the number of friends, the shape and number of the cookies, and how to cut and distribute them equally. The activity is very flexible and incorporates multiple representations of fractions, area models, numerical symbols, and voice cues. Downloadable pdfs of cookie images are provided as well as a User Manual that includes implementation suggests and a review of research. | Activity, Instructor Guide/Manual, Interactive Media Grade Level: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Resource is part of a PD collection |