Number and Operations—Fractions

Develop understanding of fractions as numbers.

3. Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size.

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This is a sample PARCC assessment task based on CCSS grade 3 fraction standards. In this interactive five-part task students reason about fractions used to represent part of a whole or a location on a number line, compare fractions with and without models, and construct arguments to defend their decisions. Included are the alignments to the CCSS, a scoring rubric, and background on the task itself. | Assessment, Problem Set, Reference Materials Grade Level: 3 | |

This set of interactive activities for students introduces early fractions concepts. Students name the parts needed to divide a pizza, fill in a fraction wall with fraction bars, name a shaded fraction, arrange fractions on a number line, and subtract fractions from a whole using different denominators. The main page links to support materials for teachers: practice problems and exposition material. | Activity, Lecture/Presentation, Problem Set Grade Level: 2, 3, 4, 5 | |

In this five lesson unit with overview from Illuminations, student activities explore relationships among fractions through work with the length model. Students construct fraction strips and use fraction bars throughout the unit to make sense of basic fraction concepts, to compare fractions and order fractions and to work with equivalency in fractions. Specific learning objectives, a material list, an instructional plan, questions for the students, assessment options, extensions, and teacher reflections are given for each lesson. | Lesson Plans Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 | |

This unit from Illuminations consists of five lessons designed to help students understand fractions when they are represented as a part of a region. Learners investigate relationships between parts and wholes, the relative value of the fraction based on the pattern block shape and equivalency while working with physical and/or virtual pattern blocks. Instructional plan, questions for the students, assessment options, extensions, and teacher reflections are given for each lesson. | Activity, Interactive Media, Lesson Plans Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 | |

This Web unit is designed to introduce young children (K-2) to beginning concepts in fractions: equal parts, divide and shade, parts to whole, and writing fractions. Each lesson includes an interactive, manipulative-based project, technology, paper/pencil practice, and literature connections. Helpful links and teacher support extension ideas are also provided, including alignment to NCTM Standards. | Activity, Instructor Guide/Manual, Lesson Plans Grade Level: Pre-K, K, 1, 2, 3 | |

In this lesson students learn the meaning of fractions as parts of a whole and parts of a set. They learn key vocabulary and how to compare and order fractions. The lesson links to an interactive game, Fraction Fun (catalogued separately), which gives practice in naming fractions, and to downloadable follow-up exercises (Word and pdf). | Activity, Interactive Media, Lesson Plans Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 | |

In this lesson plan from Illuminations, students use relationship rods to explore fraction relationships. Relationship rods range in length from one to ten centimeters, and each rod is a different color. An activity sheet with solutions, questions for students, assessment options, and suggested extension activities are included. The lesson plan is part of a five lesson plan unit, Fun with Fractions, which is cataloged separately. | Activity, Lesson Plans Grade Level: 3, 4, 5, 6+ Resource is part of a PD collection | |

This interactive Flash applet develops children's fraction concepts (partitioning, equivalence, and unit) by building on their informal understanding of rational numbers in the familiar context of sharing cookies fairly among friends. Users decide on the number of friends, the shape and number of the cookies, and how to cut and distribute them equally. The activity is very flexible and incorporates multiple representations of fractions, area models, numerical symbols, and voice cues. Downloadable pdfs of cookie images are provided as well as a User Manual that includes implementation suggests and a review of research. | Activity, Instructor Guide/Manual, Interactive Media Grade Level: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Resource is part of a PD collection | |

This interactive applet helps students develop fraction sense by comparing and ordering fractions and identifying equivalent fractions. In each of 8 progressive rounds students arrange 10 socks, each with a fraction displayed, onto a 0 - 1 number line by estimating their relative locations. The applet adjusts the position of each sock to be accurate; however, if the new sock has to pass a previously placed sock, the level ends and the player must start over. | Activity, Interactive Media Grade Level: 3, 4, 5, 6+ | |

In this lesson plan, students investigate ways to share different sized items between two people. Students are asked to find equivalent fractions on a number line and to order those fractions by size. Included are a video clip called Equal Amounts of Gold, two worksheets, and two assessments as well as an answer key. | Activity, Lesson Plans, Video Grade Level: 3, 4, 5, 6+ |