Resources and Tools for Elementary Math Specialists and Teachers

Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

Grade(s) 3 resources related to the following standard:
Number and Operations—Fractions
Develop understanding of fractions as numbers.
2. Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram.
b. Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off a lengths 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line.

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This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Grade Three student will know, understand and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study).
Reference Materials
Grade Level: 3
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In this article from The Wall Street Journal, Sue Shellenbarger explains changes in teaching fractions that have been shown through research to improve students' overall understanding of fractions. The article is based on research from University of Delaware, Vanderbilt University, and Carnegie Mellon University. The article also reflects shifts in the Common Core State Standards: earlier introduction of fractions and more conceptual understanding. Included in the article is a seven and a half minute audio interview with Sue Shellenbarger on The Wall Street Journal This Morning.
Reference Materials, Article, Voice Recording
Grade Level: 3, 4, 5, 6+
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In this brief article the numerous uses of the number line are detailed: counting, measurement, addition, subtraction, decimals, and fractions. The article contains visual representations of the some of the concepts and links to related topics.
Reference Materials, Article
Grade Level: K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Resource is part of a PD collection
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In this 7- minute video Dr. Yukari Okamoto describes the misconceptions students have about fractions based upon the common fraction models that are used in the classroom. Dr. Yukari highly recommends the use of number lines as models of fractional parts, sums and equivalency A transcript of this video is available in PDF format.
Video
Grade Level: 3, 4, 5
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This iOS app facilitates understanding of numbers on a numberline and estimating fractions. At each level of the game the beginning and ending numbers of the numberline change along with the increments. This same game has been cataloged in a related resource in Java format.
Game, Mobile App
Grade Level: 3, 4, 5
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Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of the value of fractions by placing numbers, visual models, and decimals on a number line. Students learn that every fraction and decimal describes a specific value. This page includes a video demonstration of the tool and sample lessons from the Conceptua curriculum. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access full curriculum and allow full student use.
Activity, Demonstration, Interactive Media, Video
Grade Level: 3, 4, 5, 6+
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This webpage offers two variations of a game in which students practice locating whole numbers, fractions, and decimals on the numerline. It extends the online game Battleship Numberline (cataloged separately as a related resource) in a collaborative, physical format.
Activity, Game, Lesson Plans
Grade Level: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6+
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This interactive game, similar to "Fraction Game" (catalogued separately) allows two students an opportunity to think about how fractions are related to a unit whole, compare fractional parts of a whole, and find equivalent fractions. Two players move markers a total distance (forwards and backwards directions) that equals the random target fraction box, along their choice of seven parallel number line tracks, which are divided into different fractional parts. The goal is to move each of the seven markers to the right side of the game board before your opponent does. Instructions and discussion questions are given.
Activity, Game, Interactive Media
Grade Level: 3, 4, 5
Resource is part of a PD collection
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This progressions document from the Common Core Standards Writing team explains how fractions are incorporated in the standards from third grade through fifth grade. Each grade level includes an explanation, important vocabulary, and illustrations.
Instructional Strategy, Reference Materials
Grade Level: 3, 4, 5
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Twenty-eight lesson plans make up this research-based fourth and fifth grade fraction curriculum. It includes a teacher guide with theoretical framework and instructions and templates for making manipulatives. The Rational Number Project is an NSF-funded multi-university research project, and originally published this series of lessons in 1997 as "Fraction Lessons for the Middle Grades Level 1". This is an updated version, aligned to NCTM Standards for 2000.
Instructor Guide/Manual, Lesson Plans
Grade Level: 4, 5, 6+
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