Number and Operations—Fractions

Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.

3. Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b.

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These videos focus on specific standards and include examples/illustrations geared to clarify the meaning of the individual standard rather than to be a guide on how to teach it. There is an introductory video for the collection; the videos are organized by grade level and can be downloaded as well as viewed online. | Instructional Strategy, Reference Materials, Video Grade Level: K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 | |

This 88-page document addresses the meaning of the Common Core State Standards for teaching fractions in grades 3-7. For each grade level the specific standards that are addressed are listed, followed by a detailed explanation of what the standards mean, including visual models, and any misconceptions teachers or students might have about how specific standards apply to fractions in the CCSS. | Instructional Strategy, Reference Materials, Article Grade Level: 3, 4, 5, 6+ | |

In this 7-minute video Dr. David C. Geary describes how to build students' understanding of the concepts behind the operations with fractions. He identifies the reasoning behind several student misconceptions and urges teachers to use these misconceptions to build conceptual understanding. A transcript of the video is available in PDF format. | Video Grade Level: 4, 5 | |

This 8-page article (PDF) details the errors and misconceptions that students may have with fraction computation. The article emphasizes the importance of putting fraction problems in a real world context in order to deepen understanding of fractions and operations with fractions. By anticipating potential errors and misconceptions, teachers can help students avoid misunderstandings that might arise from these models and contexts. | Instructional Strategy, Reference Materials, Article Grade Level: 4, 5, 6+ | |

This iOS app gives students an opportunity to visually model and calculate six different types of fraction applications, all in the context of solving word problems. Types of problems include finding a fraction of a number, using a known part to find the whole or another part, and problems using the four operations. Teachers can track a student's progress throughout the problem sets. An online version of this application is cataloged separately as a related resource. | Interactive Media, Mobile App, Problem Set, Video Grade Level: 4, 5, 6+ | |

This interactive Flash activity gives students an opportunity to visually model and calculate six different types of fraction applications, all in the context of solving word problems. Types of problems include finding a fraction of a number, using a known part to find the whole or other part, and problems using the four operations. A video demonstration introduces the method, and then students work on problems. Teachers can track a student's progress throughout the problem sets. | Activity, Interactive Media, Problem Set, Video Grade Level: 4, 5, 6+ Resource is part of a PD collection | |

This collection of lessons, interactive Flash exercises and teacher utilities supports the learning of fraction concepts using side-by-side symbolic and pictorial representations. The lessons cover identifying, comparing, renaming and operating with fractions using circle and number line models. The Fraction Maker feature allows a teacher to create visual models to illustrate those same topics with fractions chosen by the user. The site includes student games and worksheets as well as suggestions and resources for the teacher. | Activity, Game, Interactive Media, Tutorial Grade Level: 3, 4, 5, 6+ | |

In this 6-minute video Keith Phelps shows a lesson in which he has his fourth grade students decompose fractions to show one and a half in multiple ways. Students are given a variety of fraction tiles to complete this activity and are asked to build it, draw it, and write a number sentence for their solution. In addition to the video a transcript is provided. | Activity, Video Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 | |

This formative assessment lesson is intended to help teachers assess how well students are able to use fractions in a problem solving context. In particular this lesson aims to identify and help students with difficulties in fractional concepts and problem solving strategies. | Activity, Lesson Plans Grade Level: 4, 5, 6+ | |

This webpage links to a Java applet that enables students to build fractions, make equivalent fractions, compare fractions, and complete addition and subtraction of simple fractions with like denominators. The applet includes a variety of levels of challenge and representation. The webpage also includes a downloadable applet, a PowerPoint presentation on how to use the simulation, a PDF lesson plan, and a series of eight student recording sheets in PDF format. | Activity, Interactive Media, Lesson Plans Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 |