Number and Operations—Fractions

Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions.

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This 8-page article from Teaching Children Mathematics discusses how overgeneralizing commonly accepted practices, using imprecise vocabulary, and relying on tips and tricks that do not promote conceptual mathematical understanding can lead to misunderstanding later in students’ math careers. The authors provide a table of some "expired" mathematical language and suggest more appropriate alternatives. | Instructional Strategy, Reference Materials, Article Grade Level: K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6+ Resource is part of a PD collection | |

This 68-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 5 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-4. | Instructional Strategy, Reference Materials Grade Level: 5 | |

This web page provides links to resources aligned to the CCSS that guide and support fifth grade mathematics teaching and learning. Tasks developed by the Mathematics Assessment Resource Service (MARS), Problems of the Month, (POM home page is cataloged separately) and videos of public lessons and number talks developed by the Noyce Foundation are included. The tasks were designed to measure students' ability to solve non-routine problems, explain and justify their solutions, and promote high level thinking skills. They include the scoring rubric, student responses, and discussion of student understanding and misconceptions. Resources are listed for specific grade 5 standards and are also organized by progression for an alternate search route. | Instructional Strategy, Problem Set, Reference Materials, Video Grade Level: 5 | |

This page provides examples of 5th Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations in Base Ten, and Number Operations-Fractions) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files for the 5th Grade Number Activities listed are in PDF format. | Activity, Game Grade Level: 5 | |

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of adding fractions with uncommon denominators by linking visual models to procedures. Students make use of fractions with a value of one. This page includes a video demonstration of the tool and sample lessons from the Conceptua curriculum. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access full curriculum and allow full student use. | Activity, Demonstration, Interactive Media, Video Grade Level: 4, 5, 6+ | |

This webpage for math students and their teachers offers a searchable archive of questions and answers about fractions and decimals at the elementary level. Equivalent fractions, common denominators, all four operations, fraction and decimal conversions, and other topics are included. | Community Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 | |

This 22 slide interactive module provides details and examples to support the progression of the CCSS Fraction Standards for grades 1-8. Throughout the module are active links to the standards, a glossary, and examples and solutions. | Reference Materials, Voice Recording Grade Level: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6+ | |

This four-part E-Example from Principles and Standards for School Mathematics of the NCTM standards highlights how mathematical games can foster mathematical communication as students explain and justify their moves to one another in a fraction game. In addition, a video is included that demonstrates students engaged in thinking about and applying their mathematical concepts and skills. The game "Playing Fraction Tracks" is cataloged separately. | Activity, Game, Interactive Media Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 Resource is part of a PD collection | |

This lesson plan introduces the game Deep Sea Duel, which develops students' operation skills and strategic thinking, and can be played online or with cards. After playing several variations of the game, students attempt to identify a winning strategy and compare the game to other familiar games. Variations include whole numbers, decimals, fractions, exponents, and words. The lesson includes printable cards and a student worksheet, questions for student discussion and teacher reflection, assessment options, and extensions. The online game and the cited article are cataloged separately. | Activity, Game, Lesson Plans Grade Level: 3, 4, 5, 6+ | |

This interactive Java applet provides students with practice in subtraction and pattern recognition. Starting with four numbers in the corners of an outside square, students find the differences (larger minus the smaller) between the pair of numbers on each side of the square. After correctly completing each square, they repeat the process for the next inner square, until all squares are complete. Students can explore the patterns that emerge as they work toward the center square. Users can choose to work with whole numbers, integers, fractions, decimals, or money. They may also create their own problems by selecting the four starting numbers for the outside square. | Activity, Game, Interactive Media Grade Level: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 |