Statistics and Probability

Develop understanding of statistical variability.

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Resource | Resource Type Grade Level | Rating |
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This bar graph application allows the learner to interpret one of three sets of pre-existing data or to input their own data and create their own bar graph. The display can be altered to increase or descrease the interval on the y-axis or to increase or descrease the width of the bars on the x-axis. | Activity, Interactive Media Grade Level: 3, 4, 5, 6+ | |

This Flash tool allows students to make a box plot of their data, using up to four categories of their own choosing, or using one of the data sets provided. The tool will plot all the data together, or break it out by category. Students can set a multiple of the Interquartile Range to be the Extreme Range, and exclude that data from the graph if they wish. Associated lessons (free) and a Mathematics Assessment Sampler (for purchase) are linked at the right side of the page. | Activity, Graph Grade Level: 3, 4, 5, 6+ | |

This interactive Shockwave applet helps students learn about using frequency tables to organize data and using several visual representations to interpret data. At each of three levels the user collects and records simulated data about a class of students, and then chooses a graph that represents the given data. Representations include circle graphs, line graphs, histograms, and simple scatter plots. The Key Ideas page offers background information on graphs and data analysis. A set of supplementary student activity printouts (Words, Words, Words) is available for further practice. | Activity, Interactive Media Grade Level: 3, 4, 5, 6+ | |

In this lesson students see how data collection and analysis can aid in decision making. Learners are introduced to the concepts of range, mean, median, and mode. The lesson is supported with curriculum and standards alignments, a 3.5 minute video, a handout, and assessment materials (rtf format), accessible prior to viewing the video. | Activity, Lesson Plans, Video Grade Level: 5, 6+ | |

This lesson, from Illuminations, gives students practice in measurement and in displaying and interpreting data through box-and-whisker plots. Students may draw the plots themselves or use the online Box Plotter tool. Learning objectives, materials, student questions, extensions, teacher reflections, and NCTM Standards alignment are provided. | Lesson Plans Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 | |

This lesson plan combines physical activity (jumping jacks) with data collection. The purpose of this activity is to compare and contrast the use of mean, median, and mode as the best measure of central tendency. The lesson plan includes three worksheets, extension questions, and assessment options. | Lesson Plans Grade Level: 4, 5, 6+ | |

In this lesson plan students must use a frequency chart to describe a set of data, including the mean, median, mode, and range of the data set. The lesson plan includes a pre-assessment, whole class activity, collaborative learning activity, and formative assessment. To be successful at this lesson students will need to be able to interpret the frequency chart for the mean, median, mode, and range, but also be able to fill in a frequency chart with a possible solution when given these data landmarks. Additional resources include the lesson plan in a 26-page PDF, the teacher slides in a 4-slide PowerPoint presentation, and a 16-page PDF guide for teachers and administrators. | Assessment, Activity, Lesson Plans Grade Level: 5, 6+ | |

In this two-day activity students must determine the procedures for data collection, complete the experiment, display data from their experiment and their challengers, and then compare the two sets of data. | Activity, Game, Lesson Plans Grade Level: 4, 5, 6+ | |

This application uses percentages to shade in a map of the United States. It displays ten different data sets and their proportional relationships across the nation and offers an option to generate random numbers. Each state is represented by its number value in the data set and then shaded based on its percentage of the greatest value. A box and whisker plot is provided as well as mean, median, lower quartile, and upper quartile. This application is used in a related resource that is cataloged separately, "State Data (Illuminations)". | Interactive Media, Map Grade Level: 4, 5, 6+ | |

This 5-lesson unit (pdf) gives students experience in gathering, depicting and analyzing real data. In each of these lessons students use 100 pennies to explore various data and probability concepts. The first 3 lesson plans focus on collecting, representing, and interpreting data. This information is then utilized in the last 2 lesson plans to discuss probability and games of chance. Additional topics and worksheet masters for these activities are provided at the end of this booklet. | Activity, Lesson Plans, Unit of Instruction Grade Level: 4, 5, 6+ |