Operations and Algebraic Thinking

Gain familiarity with factors and multiples.

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Resource | Resource Type Grade Level | Rating |
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In this 5.5 minute video Dr James Grime (Cambridge University, UK) explains why mathematicians don't classify the number 1 as a prime. He includes historical background and an explanation of the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. | Tutorial, Video Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 | |

This 75-page pdf document demonstrates the connections between the CCSS content standards and the mathematical practice standards. It is a compilation of research, standards from several states, instructional strategies, common misconceptions, and examples for each standard at the grade 4 level. It is intended to help teachers understand what each standard means in terms of what students must know and be able to do. Additional flip books are cataloged separately for grades K-3 and 5. | Instructional Strategy, Reference Materials Grade Level: 4 | |

This web page provides links to resources aligned to the CCSS that guide and support fourth grade mathematics teaching and learning. Tasks developed by the Mathematics Assessment Resource Service (MARS) for the Noyce Foundation, Problems of the Month, (POM home page is cataloged separately) and videos of public lessons and number talks developed by the Noyce Foundation are also included. The performance tasks were originally designed to measure students' ability to solve non-routine problems and then to explain and justify their solutions. The task scoring rubric, student responses, and discussion of student understanding and misconceptions are provided to improve instruction. Resources are listed for specific grade 4 standards and are also organized by progression for an alternate search route. | Activity, Instructional Strategy, Problem Set, Reference Materials, Video Grade Level: 4 | |

This page provides examples of 4th Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations in Base Ten, and Number Operations-Fractions) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files for the 4th Grade Number Activities listed are in PDF format. | Activity, Game Grade Level: 4 | |

This web site contains information and interactive applets related to our Hindu-Arabic number system. Users learn the history and structure of the system as well as how to count and write numbers. Users can learn and practice various algorithms for whole number computation and explore fractions, decimals and percents in our number system. The site explains various sets of numbers and how they relate to operations. | Activity, Interactive Media, Tutorial, Reference Materials Grade Level: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 | |

This interactive Wolfram Demonstration helps students visualize the relationship between multiplication and the area of a rectangle. On a 10x10 multiplication table, with 1 in the lower left and 100 in the upper right, users adjust the size of a rectangle by dragging a vertex or sliders, or by choosing a product from a pulldown list. The resulting rectangle highlights the width, height and area (factors and product) as well as other equivalent areas (products) on the board, illustrating commutativity and multiple factor pairs. Wolfram CDF Player, a free download, is required to view this resource. | Activity, Interactive Media Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 Resource is part of a PD collection | |

This interactive Flash applet offers three ways for students to practice basic fact skills related to multiplication and division. Users control the challenge level by choosing the size of the blank multiplication grid displayed by the applet. In Multiply mode users type in the product that completes a multiplication sentence. In Factor mode users click a grid cell that matches a given product. In Divide mode users type in a missing factor in the displayed multiplication sentence. A sound effect and timing feature are optional. | Activity, Interactive Media Grade Level: 3, 4, 5 | |

This interactive Flash game gives students practice in identifying multiples of given numbers. Users choose two multiplication tables (from 2 to 9) and the number of examples/bees they want to try (from 4 to 34). The game displays the chosen number of bees with numbers on them; users identify whether each is a multiple of one factor or the other, both factors, or neither factor. At the end of a round players may check their answers. ["e" = "and" in Italian] | Activity, Game, Interactive Media Grade Level: 4, 5 | |

In this activity, learners decipher a page from the Dresden Codex, one of the few Mayan books still in existence. By thinking like an archaeologist, students combine their mathematical abilities with some basic logic and trial-and-error investigation to figure out what the codex means. In the course of this explorations, participants discover: How archaeologists have figured out what Mayan documents mean. How the Mayan system of counting is like ours, and how it is different. How Mayan beliefs were tied to their understanding of mathematics. | Activity, Instructor Guide/Manual, Project, Reference Materials, Article Grade Level: 4, 5, 6+ | |

In this lesson plan students watch a video clip of Bianca as she uses Venn diagrams to try to satisfy three people's preferences in pizza toppings. Students practice using Venn diagrams to represent the pizza topping preferences. Learners are then introduced to prime numbers, prime factorization, and the use of Venn diagrams to determine least common multiple and greatest common factor. Support materials are included: Handout: Gleamers and Glow Power, Assessment: Levels A and B and answer keys are provided. | Lesson Plans, Video Grade Level: 3, 4, 5, 6+ |